If you keep any outdoor livestock, chances are at some point you are likely to be feeding a whole host of rats. Not only will this hurt your pocket, with feed prices being sky high, but there are possible health risks to you and your family too.
What is Weil’s Disease?
Rats (and any other mammal for that matter) can carry a bacteria that they excrete through their urine called Leptospirosis. This can cause a whole host of symptoms in humans that can make you feel rotten, but most worryingly in extremely rare cases, this infection can become Weil’s disease, which can be fatal.
Rats have no bladder control. They urinate constantly, dribbling as they go so to speak. Every surface they touch or walk over can become contaminated with their urine, and if infected, Leptospira. The bacteria is only active whilst wet, so in areas where it is present with moisture (around duck ponds or chicken waterers for example) it can be active for months. Within a short time of the bacteria drying, the bacteria dies.
Initial symptoms can take up to a month after infection to show up. Mild cases can (but don’t always) include; Headaches, red eyes, muscle pain, fatigue, skin rash, behavioural changes, nausea and a high temperature.
These symptoms can last from 3 to 5 days. After this stage, patients will start improving and most will continue to make a full recovery.
In some cases after this initial reprieve, the symptoms will return alongside more serious symptoms such as; chest & abdominal pain, renal problems, psychological changes, neck stiffness and vomiting. With treatment, most patients make a full recovery.
However, in patients with poor health or those subjected to a very high dose of the bacteria, the initial symptoms are much quicker and stronger and without medical treatment there is a real possibility of jaundice, internal bleeding and multiple organ failure leading to death.
How can I prevent catching it?
Leptospirosis can enter the human body through several routes including cuts, grazes, mouth and eyes.
What can you do?
- Cover any wounds, grazes or sores with plasters before going out to check or feed your animals
- Wash your hands with hot soapy water as soon you get back in or keep a tub of anti bac hand gel in the chicken coop
- Don’t touch your mouth or face before washing your hands
- If you are cleaning a coop or run with a hose or pressure washer, wear a face mask and goggles
- If you get scratched by a chicken or duck claw, stop what you’re doing and drench the wound in a disinfectant solution
And to prevent rats in the first place
- Keep animal feed in rat proof bins
- Clear up any spilt food before shutting animals up for the night and remove feed hoppers
- At the first signs of rats, call in a professional vermin control service to wipe them out swiftly.
Have a vermin plan. Whether you choose to use poison, dogs or trapping, you need a plan and you need to stick to it, especially in autumn/winter when rats are moving indoors. I choose to use poison, although Jonny hates that I do.
Bad placement of rat poison can be responsible for the death of cats, dogs, poultry and wild birds, and bad management can cause rats to become immune to the effect of poison, creating huge problems in the future. If you don’t know what you are doing, please call in the experts.
This isn’t something to freak out about, as it is incredibly rare. In all my years of living on a farm, I’ve never heard of anyone getting sick from Leptospirosis or Weil’s disease.
Just please, be aware of the causes and symptoms and have your family take sensible, hygienic precautions when around your livestock.